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03-Apr-2019 01:06

Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians.

In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden at the time.

Fighting reached Estonia in 1206, when Danish king Valdemar II unsuccessfully invaded Saaremaa.

The German Livonian Brothers of the Sword, who had previously subjugated Livonians, Latgalians, and Selonians, started campaigning against Estonians in 1208, and over next years both sides made numerous raids and counter-raids.

At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water.

Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.

Ethnic Estonians are a Finnic people, sharing close cultural ties with their northern neighbour, Finland, and the official language, Estonian, is a Finno-Ugric language closely related to Finnish and the Sami languages, and distantly to Hungarian.

Following the loss of its de facto independence, a government in exile was formed.

In 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991.

Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted.

The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia.

Ethnic Estonians are a Finnic people, sharing close cultural ties with their northern neighbour, Finland, and the official language, Estonian, is a Finno-Ugric language closely related to Finnish and the Sami languages, and distantly to Hungarian.Following the loss of its de facto independence, a government in exile was formed.In 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991.Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted.The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia.A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed, with external threats appearing from different directions.